An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private).
A government official or functionary is an official who is involved in public administration or government, through either election, appointment, selection, or employment. A bureaucrat or civil servant is a member of the bureaucracy. An elected official is a person who is an official by virtue of an election. Officials may also be appointed ex officio (by virtue of another office, often in a specified capacity, such as presiding, advisory, secretary). Some official positions may be inherited. A person who currently holds an office is referred to as an incumbent.
The word official as a noun has been recorded since the Middle English period, first seen in 1314. It comes from the Old French official (12th century), from the Latin officialis ("attendant to a magistrate, public official"), the noun use of the original adjective officialis ("of or belonging to duty, service, or office") from officium ("office"). The meaning "person in charge of some public work or duty" was first recorded in 1555. The adjective is first attested in English in 1533, via the Old French oficial.
An official in Canadian football is a person who has responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game.
Canadian football officials generally use the following equipment:
Rugby league match officials are responsible for fairly enforcing the Laws of the Game from a neutral point of view during a match of rugby league football and imposing penalties for deliberate breaches of these Laws. The most senior match official is the referee, they may be assisted by a range of other officials depending on the level and rules of the competition.
The match officials may use the following equipment:
Match officials on the playing field including the referee, touch judges and in-goal judges all wear an official uniform of a colour distinguishable from those being worn by the two sides playing each other. These uniforms have no special markings to signify the official capacity of the wearer, instead this can be identified by the positioning and equipment of the official.
Different refereeing systems are in use:
The players of each team should be made available for kit inspection. The referee inspects the playing kit of the two teams to ensure it is within the rules, safety is the main concern. The boots worn by players can be of particular interest so as to make sure that there are no sharp edges. The strapping worn by some players has also been scrutinised.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms. Typically, a hologram is a photographic recording of a light field, rather than of an image formed by a lens, and it is used to display a fully three-dimensional image of the holographed subject, which is seen without the aid of special glasses or other intermediate optics. The hologram itself is not an image and it is usually unintelligible when viewed under diffuse ambient light. It is an encoding of the light field as an interference pattern of seemingly random variations in the opacity, density, or surface profile of the photographic medium. When suitably lit, the interference pattern diffracts the light into a reproduction of the original light field and the objects that were in it appear to still be there, exhibiting visual depth cues such as parallax and perspective that change realistically with any change in the relative position of the observer.
In its pure form, holography requires the use of laser light for illuminating the subject and for viewing the finished hologram. In a side-by-side comparison under optimal conditions, a holographic image is visually indistinguishable from the actual subject, if the hologram and the subject are lit just as they were at the time of recording. A microscopic level of detail throughout the recorded volume of space can be reproduced. In common practice, however, major image quality compromises are made to eliminate the need for laser illumination when viewing the hologram, and sometimes, to the extent possible, also when making it. Holographic portraiture often resorts to a non-holographic intermediate imaging procedure, to avoid the hazardous high-powered pulsed lasers otherwise needed to optically "freeze" living subjects as perfectly as the extremely motion-intolerant holographic recording process requires. Holograms can now also be entirely computer-generated and show objects or scenes that never existed.
This Is Us is the seventh studio album, sixth in the United States, from American pop group Backstreet Boys. It is their second and last album as a quartet. It was released on September 30, 2009 in Japan through Sony Music Japan, October 5, 2009 in the UK through RCA, and October 6 in the U.S. as the final studio album through Jive Records.
On the album, the group has reunited with previous collaborator and producer Max Martin (responsible for the previous hit "I Want It That Way") to try and create their best record since their 1999 worldwide hit album Millennium. They worked with Ryan Tedder, Claude Kelly, Jim Jonsin, RedOne, Ne-Yo, Brian Kennedy, Alex James, Pitbull, Eddie Galan, Rami Yacoub, Kristian Lundin, and T-Pain amongst others for the album as well.
The album debuted at number 9 on the US Billboard 200 making them the first group since Sade to have their first seven albums reach top 10 on the chart.RedOne produced the album's lead single "Straight Through My Heart" which was released in August/September 2009 and reached number 1 in Taiwan, number 3 in Japan, number 5 in Spain, number 106 in Billboard Hot 100, 19 in Canada, 72 in the UK, and 18 on the US Hot Dance Club Songs chart. It was their final album under Jive and their last album as a quartet before original member Kevin Richardson rejoined the band in 2012.
A hologram is a three-dimensional image created by holography.
Hologram may also refer to: